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Personality Disorder

What is personality Disorder

A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in which you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving. A person with a personality disorder has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and people. This causes significant problems and limitations in relationships, social activities, work and school.

In some cases, you may not realize that you have a personality disorder because your way of thinking and behaving seems natural to you. And you may blame others for the challenges you face.

Personality disorders usually begin in the teenage years or early adulthood. There are many types of personality disorders. Some types may become less obvious throughout middle age.


The two main treatments for anxiety disorders are psychotherapy and medications. You may benefit most from a combination of the two. It may take some trial and error to discover which treatments work best for you.


Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the most effective form of psychotherapy for anxiety disorders. Generally a short-term treatment, CBT focuses on teaching you specific skills to improve your symptoms and gradually return to the activities you've avoided because of anxiety.


Several types of medications are used to help relieve symptoms, depending on the type of anxiety disorder you have and whether you also have other mental or physical health issues. For example:

  • Certain antidepressants are also used to treat anxiety disorders.

  • An anti-anxiety medication called buspirone may be prescribed.

Find out More: 

Find a psychological therapies service (England only)

NHS - England link

Anxiety UK

Charity providing support if you have been diagnosed with an anxiety condition.

Phone: 03444 775 774 (Monday to Friday, 9.30 am to 10pm; Saturday to Sunday, 10am to 8pm)


Cluster A Personality disorders

Cluster A personality disorders are characterized by odd, eccentric thinking or behavior. They include paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder.

Paranoid personality disorder

  • Pervasive distrust and suspicion of others and their motives

  • Unjustified belief that others are trying to harm or deceive you

  • Unjustified suspicion of the loyalty or trustworthiness of others

  • Hesitancy to confide in others due to unreasonable fear that others will use the information against you

  • Perception of innocent remarks or nonthreatening situations as personal insults or attacks

  • Angry or hostile reaction to perceived slights or insults

  • Tendency to hold grudges

  • Unjustified, recurrent suspicion that spouse or sexual partner is unfaithful

Schizoid personality disorder

  • Lack of interest in social or personal relationships, preferring to be alone

  • Limited range of emotional expression

  • Inability to take pleasure in most activities

  • Inability to pick up normal social cues

  • Appearance of being cold or indifferent to others

  • Little or no interest in having sex with another person

Schizotypal personality disorder

  • Peculiar dress, thinking, beliefs, speech or behavior

  • Odd perceptual experiences, such as hearing a voice whisper your name

  • Flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses

  • Social anxiety and a lack of or discomfort with close relationships

  • Indifferent, inappropriate or suspicious response to others

  • "Magical thinking" — believing you can influence people and events with your thoughts

  • Belief that certain casual incidents or events have hidden messages meant only for you

Cluster C Personality disorders

Cluster C personality disorders are characterized by anxious, fearful thinking or behavior. They include avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

Avoidant personality disorder

  • Too sensitive to criticism or rejection

  • Feeling inadequate, inferior or unattractive

  • Avoidance of work activities that require interpersonal contact

  • Socially inhibited, timid and isolated, avoiding new activities or meeting strangers

  • Extreme shyness in social situations and personal relationships

  • Fear of disapproval, embarrassment or ridicule

Dependent personality disorder

  • Excessive dependence on others and feeling the need to be taken care of

  • Submissive or clingy behavior toward others

  • Fear of having to provide self-care or fend for yourself if left alone

  • Lack of self-confidence, requiring excessive advice and reassurance from others to make even small decisions

  • Difficulty starting or doing projects on your own due to lack of self-confidence

  • Difficulty disagreeing with others, fearing disapproval

  • Tolerance of poor or abusive treatment, even when other options are available

  • Urgent need to start a new relationship when a close one has ended

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

  • Preoccupation with details, orderliness and rules

  • Extreme perfectionism, resulting in dysfunction and distress when perfection is not achieved, such as feeling unable to finish a project because you don't meet your own strict standards

  • Desire to be in control of people, tasks and situations, and inability to delegate tasks

  • Neglect of friends and enjoyable activities because of excessive commitment to work or a project

  • Inability to discard broken or worthless objects

  • Rigid and stubborn

  • Inflexible about morality, ethics or values

  • Tight, miserly control over budgeting and spending money

Signs & Symptoms 
  • Feeling nervous, restless or tense

  • Having a sense of impending danger, panic or doom

  • Having an increased heart rate

  • Breathing rapidly (hyperventilation)

  • Sweating

  • Trembling

  • Feeling weak or tired

  • Trouble concentrating or thinking about anything other than the present worry

  • Having trouble sleeping

  • Experiencing gastrointestinal (GI) problems

  • Having difficulty controlling worry

  • Having the urge to avoid things that trigger anxiety

Self - Help 
  • Try a book or online course

  • Exercise regularly

  • Learn to relax

  • Avoid caffeine

  • Avoid smoking and drinking

Support Groups 

Support groups can give you advice on how to manage your anxiety.

They're also a good way to meet other people with similar experiences.

Examples of support groups you may find useful include:

Support groups can often arrange face-to-face meetings, where you can talk about your difficulties and problems with other people.

Many support groups also provide support and guidance over the phone or in writing.

Ask your GP about local support groups for anxiety in your area, or search online for mental health information and support services near you.

Emergency Action plan:

Carry out a primary survey

  1. Calm the Person

  2. Ask the person what you can do to help.

  3. Reassure the person that the attack will probably pass in a few minutes.

  4. Encourage the person to take slow, even breaths.

  5. Do not minimize the person's symptoms.

  6. If they've had a panic attack before, ask them what helped them through it.

  7. If unable to calm the person, take him or her to see a health care provider right away.

Cluster B Personality disorders

Cluster B personality disorders are characterized by dramatic, overly emotional or unpredictable thinking or behavior. They include antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder.

Antisocial personality disorder

  • Disregard for others' needs or feelings

  • Persistent lying, stealing, using aliases, conning others

  • Recurring problems with the law

  • Repeated violation of the rights of others

  • Aggressive, often violent behavior

  • Disregard for the safety of self or others

  • Impulsive behavior

  • Consistently irresponsible

  • Lack of remorse for behavior

Borderline personality disorder

  • Impulsive and risky behavior, such as having unsafe sex, gambling or binge eating

  • Unstable or fragile self-image

  • Unstable and intense relationships

  • Up and down moods, often as a reaction to interpersonal stress

  • Suicidal behavior or threats of self-injury

  • Intense fear of being alone or abandoned

  • Ongoing feelings of emptiness

  • Frequent, intense displays of anger

  • Stress-related paranoia that comes and goes

Histrionic personality disorder

  • Constantly seeking attention

  • Excessively emotional, dramatic or sexually provocative to gain attention

  • Speaks dramatically with strong opinions, but few facts or details to back them up

  • Easily influenced by others

  • Shallow, rapidly changing emotions

  • Excessive concern with physical appearance

  • Thinks relationships with others are closer than they really are

Narcissistic personality disorder

  • Belief that you're special and more important than others

  • Fantasies about power, success and attractiveness

  • Failure to recognize others' needs and feelings

  • Exaggeration of achievements or talents

  • Expectation of constant praise and admiration

  • Arrogance

  • Unreasonable expectations of favors and advantages, often taking advantage of others

  • Envy of others or belief that others envy you

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